May 2021
Bird of the Month
Russ Chappell

Violet-Green Swallow

The violet-green swallow’s name comes from the coloration of its back and rump.

John West

This beautiful little bird can appear dark until its metallic-green back and shimmering purple rump capture the rays of the sun! A small bird, it averages slightly over four and a half inches in length, with a 10.6-inch wingspan and weighs half an ounce. Common in our area during spring and summer, they migrate to Mexico and Central America for the winter.

They routinely forage for insects over our lakes and ponds in groups of over a hundred, intermingling with other swifts and swallows, but they are easy to identify by white patches on the sides of their hindquarters and cheeks. Viewing them at a distance with binoculars makes following their flight easier since they can reach speeds of up to 28 miles per hour, around the cruising speed of a peregrine falcon! Similar to other cavity dwellers, they attract more parasites than species nesting in the open, thus they sunbathe and preen frequently, providing easier viewing and photographing as they perch on power lines and dead trees.

Breeding in open evergreen and deciduous woodlands, they prefer areas with dead trees featuring woodpecker holes or other cavities. Male and female build the nest, which can take up to 20 days. Constructed with grass, twigs, rootlets and feathers, the cup-shaped nest is up to three inches across, depending the cavity or nesting-box size.

There are one to two broods per season, each consisting of four to six white eggs, less than an inch in length and width. Incubation is around 14 days, with a nesting period of about 24 days. Hatchlings are born naked, eyes closed and with scarce patches of down on their backs, crowns, and scapulars.

Common throughout the West, this species is rated nine out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score, and is not on the 2016 State of North America's Birds Watch List.

This is a great time of the year to add this beautiful little bird to your list as it brings a smile to your face. Happy birding!

The Prescott Audubon Society is an official chapter of the National Audubon Society. Check it out online at